Text Analysis. Translated from the German by Christiane Nord and Penelope Sparrow. Join for free · Download full-text PDF Christiane Nord's model of translation-oriented text analysis, translated and adapted from. Christiane Nord. Text Analysis in Translation. Theory, Method, and Didactic Application of a Model for Translation-Oriented Text Analysis. Translated from the . Nord C Text Analysis in Translation - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Christiane Nord - Translation as a Purposeful Activity. Uploaded.
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Text Analysis in Translation- Nord - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Theory, methodology and didactic application of a model for. a Model for Translation-Oriented Text Analysis, Second Edition (Amsterdamer Publikationen zur Sprache und Literatur 94) [Christiane Nord] on preckalohotchning.cf Read Text Analysis in Translation: Theory, Methodology and Didactic Application of a Model for by Christiane Nord (Author), P. Sparrow (Translator).
Whether a death is easy or not can be judged from outside, from the doctor's point of view, whereas douce describes the feelings of the dying person. Thus, the English title sounds very matter-of-fact which is in part also due to the nominality of the phrase and would probably not achieve the same emotive function as the original.
But text functions need not necessarily be the same for the source and the target text. For French readers, the Beauvoir title does not contain any explicit or implicit reference to the fact that the book is a fictional text; for them, this information is implied by the author's name, who is known as a writer of fiction.
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For English readers, this may not be as evident. As we see, there is a shift of functions in the target title in this case. That is, the information about the genre which in the source culture is given by the author's name is shifted to the title in the target-language formulation. But there may also be cases where the target text has to achieve a function which is not vital for the source text or vice versa.
Again, we can take titles as a case in point. If the author is a famous writer in the source culture, but not known as yet in the target culture, the original title does not need to achieve an appellative function, whereas the translated title would have to attract the prospective readers' attention. I will not discuss here whether the suggested versions have been the best or the only way to achieve an appellative function in the target titles; what I would like to stress, however, is the fact that adaptations often are the only way to ensure that a translation 'works' in the target-culture situation it is produced for.
The functional approach in translation teaching Choosing the functional approach for translation practice will have considerable impact on translation teaching or translator training. In 'normal' intralingual communication, we know the situation in which and for which we produce an utterance or a text.
In the traditional translation class, however, teachers often ask the students to translate the source text 'as such', that is, without specifying the situation or purpose the translation is needed for.
Therefore, trainee translators commit grammatical mistakes even in their own native language, which they never would have made in spontaneous intralingual communication.
Experience shows that when the prospective communicative situation is clearly defined, linguistic errors are committed less frequently. Therefore, a commission or assignment which defines the intended function or functions of the target text can be expected to reduce the number of linguistic errors or faults in students' translations.
This procedure makes it easier for the trainee translator to develop translation strategies for the solution of a particular translation problem which are designed for the translation of the whole text and not for individual units such as words or phrases.
This means: In a first step, a particular translation problem for instance, a play on words is analysed with regard to its function in the text and in the target situation 1. The analysis leads to a decision whether the translation has to be adapted to target-culture norms and conventions or whether it should reproduce source-culture conventions used in the source text 2. This decision sets limits to the range of linguistic means to be used 3 , from which the translator chooses the ones which fit into the specific context, such as text-type, register, style, etc.
If there is still a choice between various means, the translator may decide according to individual stylistic preferences 5. The degree of difficulty of a translation task can then be judged according to the form of the triangle.
The lesser the constraints set by situation or convention, the larger will be the margin for individual preference decisions. In this case, it will be less easy to find plausible and intersubjective reasons for their functionality and consistency, which makes the task more difficult for the trainee.
Therefore, it can be applied to the translation of every kind of text and between every pair of languages and cultures. Thus, it is more appropriate as a framework for methodological principles and strategies and would make translator training more rational and even more 'economical' as well as more independent of language and culture specific peculiarities. Thus, even the production of a particular form of equivalence in the target text can be one possible translation skopos, which might form the last step in a teaching progression leading from easier to more difficult tasks.
Nord C Text Analysis in Translation
In the initiating phases of teaching, however, it would be wise to start by translating strongly conventionalized texts with clear functions, such as 8 instructions or tourist brochures, for which existing models and parallel texts can be found in the target culture. It is simply more fun to work on texts which ask for professionality than on newspaper reports which are hardly ever translated in practice.
And fun spells learn- ing success. Concluding remark In conclusion, I would like to say that my own experience in using the functional ap- proach in translator training shows that the trainees commit less grammatical and pragmatic mistakes, they learn a lot about cultures and conventions, and they seem to have quite a bit of fun doing all this!
A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London: University Press.
Text Analysis in Translation- Nord
Teaching Translation and Inter- preting. Training, Talent and Experience. Translational Norms and Correct Translations. Translation Studies: The State of the Art. Proceedings of the First James S. Holmes Symposium on Translation Studies. Redefining Translation.
The Variational Approach. Traducere navem. Tampere: University Press. Toward a Science of Translating.
Leiden: Brill. Heidelberg: Groos.
Text Analysis in Translation. Nord and P. Text Analysis in Translator Training. In: Target Grundlegung einer allgemeinen Translationstheorie.
Translation Studies. An Integrated Approach. In: Id. Paris: Didier. Stuttgart: Klett.
In order to make them accessible to an English-speaking audience, I present them with a slightly shifted focus in this paper. Therefore, I used complete pocket-book catalogues for titles of fictional, nonfictional and children's books e. For more details on translation typologies see Nord a, 72, and House Apart from their role as function-marker carriers, titles — like any other text-type — are characterized by structural features which are not directly relatable to situational conditions, and sometimes seem rather arbitrary.
They are determined by literary conventions and intertextual relationships existing in a particular culture. For the role of conventions in translation see Nord b.
The relationship between function-dependent and conventional features shown by a particular title or another text determines its communicative effect.
This holds true for both the original or source-text ST and the translation or target text TT. Therefore, any translation process has to be preceded by a functional analysis of a the situation for which the TT is intended, and b the situation in which the ST is or was used as a communicative instrument. Comparing the two situations, the translator is supposed to find out which ST features have to be changed or adapted in order to produce a TT which is apt to serve its purpose.
Before discussing the functions of titles and headings and the problems they raise in the translation process, I will briefly describe the recipient-oriented concept of text- function which this approach is based on. In the act of reception, the recipients decide which function s the text has for them. Let me illustrate this by means of an example. What does this mean for the sender? What does this mean for the title presented in the example?
Since there are quite a few autobiographies on the book market, it is advisable to find a title which distinguishes this book unmistakably from others Intention 1. Moreover, the title should be recognizable as a book title Intention 2 , attracting the attention of, and establishing a first contact with, any prospective reader, which may have to be extended in case there is no immediate access to the book Intention 3.
Nonetheless, the existing inventories of titles in a particular culture clearly show what readers are exposed to — and what it is that shapes their expectations.
Translation-oriented text analysis
They have fuzzy edges and often overlap. Sharing one form of behaviour in one sector e. What we can observe, however, is a tendency, a statistical trend towards certain patterns of behaviour. My analysis is intended to contribute to the description of the concept of culture, focussing on one particular behaviour or activity, namely the entitling of texts. Ideally, the title should therefore be conducive to achieving precisely the functions resulting from the intentions described above, that is a distinctive function derived from Intention 1 , a meta-textual function derived from Intention 2 , a phatic function derived from Intention 3 , an informative or referential function derived from Intention 4 , an expressive function derived from Intention 5 , an appellative function derived from Intention 6.
It is original enough to distinguish this book from any other autobiography. Since it conforms to the conventions of the genre e. From a translational perspective, the functionality of the original title must be distinguished from that of the translated title.
This may affect each of the six functions mentioned above. The following comparison shows the differences at a glance. Distinctiveness with regard to source- 1.
Distinctiveness with regard to target- culture title corpus culture title corpus 2. Conformity with source-culture genre 2. Conformity with target-culture genre conventions conventions 3. Likelihood of attracting attention of 3. Likelihood of attracting attention of source-culture readers target-culture readers 4. Informativity for source-culture readers 4.
Informativity for target-culture readers 5. Expressivity according to source-culture 5. Expressivity according to target-culture value system value system 6.
Therefore, we have to distinguish essential functions, which are derived from the general characteristics of the communicative situation in which titles are used, from optional functions, which are determined by the specific circumstances under which one particular title or type of title is used.
The realization and hierarchy of the three optional functions varies according to culture-specific norms and conventions. Verney: From Executive to Legislative Federalism? The analysis of the corpus material shows that almost all title genres in the four cultures present the same hierarchy of optional functions in an average relationship of Referential function Appellative function Expressive function The only exception is the corpus of German scholarly articles where the proportion of expressive titles is higher than that of appellative ones Notwithstanding this basic similarity, there are considerable differences in quantity between the four culture-specific corpora, as shown in the following tables, adapted from Nord , Striking deviations from the average value are printed in bold type.
General Functional Hierarchy Corpus Referential : Appellative : Expressive German 26 09 English 34 06 French 33 05 Spanish 34 04 On the whole, Spanish titles show the lowest degree of expressivity, whereas German titles are characterized by the highest degree of expressivity combined with the lowest degree of appellativity.
English and French titles occupy an intermediate position in both functions. In the titles of poems and scholarly articles except in German , the distribution is rather similar in the four cultures. This may be due to the fact that the communicative situations of these two genres are clearly defined and do not show any culture-specific particularities. The same cannot be said of the titles of short stories, where we find a relatively high degree of apellativity in English and an extremely low degree of expressivity in French, compared with German and Spanish.
Nord la, f , thus setting the limitations for a functional translation of titles, at least with regard to the four cultures included in the study. In the following sections, I will discuss some examples in order to show how this theoretical and methodological approach, which is assumed to be applicable to any other text or text-type as well, can be put into practice.
This means for example, that in a culture where readers of translations usually take the intentions expressed in the TT to be those of the author and not of the translator or the initiator the translator would have to respect these intentions and provide the TT with the corresponding function-markers.
In order to be recognizable to the target audience, such markers would have to be taken from the target-cultural marker-code. This approach has the following implications for the translation of titles. If we accept the hypothesis that distinctive, metatextual and phatic function are common to all titles, whereas referential, expressive and appellative functions are specific to some titles or title-genres, we have to distinguish two main strategic starting points for the translation of titles: In order to make sure that the translated title is appropriate to achieve the three basic functions in the target culture, the translator should follow the principle of functionality.
That is, the target title has to be in keeping will target-cultural norms and conventions with regard to form, syntax, textual design, and function-markers. In some cultures, for example in Germany, there is a law to protect book titles against unfair competition. There are a few doubles, or near-doubles, in the corpus material. It is interesting to note that, in most cases, at least one of the titles is a translation. Anne Holm: Ich bin David transl. Nonfiction: Johannes Heimleben: Darwin transl.
Children's literature: Biro: Gumdrop to the Rescue transl. The examples show that even the repetition of a particular title pattern may interfere with the distinctive function. These forms of counterproductive intertextuality have to be distinguished from intentional intertextualities like parody or quotation of titles or title patterns see Examples 5a and 8.
These include the conventions and the distribution and frequency of explicit metatextuality e. In order to achieve its metatextual function, a title muss be acceptable for the readership, and acceptability is determined by culture-specific expectations. Wie der kleine Fuchs eine Mutter bekam In the Spanish corpus, we find a title-type consisting of an asyndetic combination of two titles belonging to two different texts. Since this type is not known in the German corpus, a German reader would interpret the second half of the combination as a subtitle to the first, as in the German example.
Die offene Ehe. Die Kinder der Zukunft. The Second Sex — Germ. Das andere Geschlecht. Sitte und Sexus der Frau In German nonfiction, the frequency of title-subtitle combinations is much higher Therefore, a translation of an English or French simple title by a German title- subtitle combination is in keeping with the conventions of the genre.
Memoirs of Hadrian Germ. Die Zukunft in unserer Hand. Moreover, they are usually given in the subtitle. The translations quoted above have taken account of this aspect. Dedecius ed. Culture-specific norms determine not only the frequency but also the form of metatextual elements.
Comparing the average length of the titles and title-genres represented in the Corpora we find that they do not differ very much in the four cultures. Evidently, the optimum length of a book title that is, a simple title or the main part of a title-subtitle combination is between three and four words.
Longer titles are made easier to remember by using original structures, catch words, or a rhythmical pattern. Der Palmweintrinker. Text Analysis in Translation.
Texto base — texto meta. Un modelo. The subtitle should have been omitted altogether in the English translation because it is far too long and too complicated. In Spanish, a literal translation of the main title would not be possible without exceeding by far the conventional length limits. Moreover, the pattern consisting of a nominal phrase and a prepositional phrase is only third in frequency I do not think that this is evident at all.
The English and German translations use the relationship between Beauvoir and Sartre as an appellative element. Un modelo.
Since this type is not known in the German corpus, a German reader would interpret the second half of the combination as a subtitle to the first, as in the German example. In the initiating phases of teaching, however, it would be wise to start by translating strongly conventionalized texts with clear functions, such as 8 instructions or tourist brochures, for which existing models and parallel texts can be found in the target culture.
Therefore, title elements have to be polyfunctional if the title is to achieve its intended functions, which is also typical of other communicative signs.
In the traditional translation class, however, teachers often ask the students to translate the source text 'as such', that is, without specifying the situation or purpose the translation is needed for. Social prestige, however, is a prerequisite for self-confidence — and self- confidence makes for better translators!
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