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Discover increasing pdf collection of the most bestselling beauty magazines. Only here you will find the freshest up to date skin care, makeup and fashion. LAURA PALM. FASHION BEAUTY. BERLIN.»BLOOMING MEAdOw«JUNGLE MAGAZINE marlene. OHLSSON. Page 4. LAURA PALM. FASHION BEAUTY. its reputation as the best in fashion, beauty, culture, arts, journalism and ELLE's continued success by enhancing the magazine's look and style,” said .. Single page PDF/X-1a—PDF version (Acrobat 4); output.

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I love the way they are weighted and balanced, they are so easy to work with. The natural brush hairs are so soft and you can tell they are just top quality. They come with a lifetime guarantee, and I know just looking at them that I will definitely have them for life. At the same time, nearly every researcher I spoke to said that Prum inflates the importance of arbitrary preferences and Fisherian selection to the point of eclipsing all other possibilities.

Although he admits that certain forms of beauty may be linked to survival advantages, he does not seem particularly interested in engaging with the considerable research on this topic. Image A male painted bunting. Toward the end of our bird walk at Hammonasset Beach State Park, we got to talking about club-winged manakins.

I asked him about their evolutionary history. Over time, this sound became highly attractive to females, which pressured males to evolve adaptations that made their rustling feathers louder and more noticeable, culminating in a quick-winged strumming.

But why, I asked Prum, would females be attracted to those particular sounds in the first place? To Prum, it was a question without an answer — and thus a question not worth contemplating.

Even if we were to accept that most beauty blooms from arbitrary preferences, we would still need to explain why such preferences exist at all. But where Prum celebrates caprice, they seek causality. Molly Cummings, a professor of integrative biology at the University of Texas at Austin, is a leading researcher in the field of sensory ecology.

When I visited her last spring, she drove us to one of her field laboratories: a grassy clearing populated with several large concrete basins. The surface of one basin was so packed with woolly algae and pink-flowered water lilies that we could hardly see the water. Cummings began pushing some of the vegetation out of the way, forming shady recesses that permitted our gaze at the right angle. A paper-clip-size fish swam toward us. I leaned in for a closer look. He darted back and forth in front of the female, shimmying as he went, his scales reflecting whatever light managed to breach the murk.

As we toured the facilities, Cummings told me about the arc of her career.

While an undergraduate at Stanford University, she spent a summer scuba diving in the giant kelp forests at Hopkins Marine Station, adjacent to the world-renowned Monterey Bay Aquarium. Cummings thought about the fish she had observed in California and Australia. She was astounded by the dynamic beauty of surfperch in the kelp forest: the way they communicate through the color and brightness of their skin, flashing blue, silver and orange to attract mates.

Equally impressive was the diversity of their aquatic habitats. Some patches of water were sparkling and clear; others were cloudy with algal muck. In Australia, sunlight bathed the many vibrant species of reef fish almost constantly, but they lived against a kaleidoscopic backdrop of coral.

How did fish evolve effective and reliable sexual ornaments if the lighting and scenery in their homes were so variable? Image The tips of the outer tail feathers of a male king bird-of-paradise.

For several years, she studied various species of surfperch, repeatedly diving in the kelp forests with a Plexiglas-protected spectrometer to quantify and characterize the light in different habitats. At night, she would use powerful diving lights to stun surfperch and take them back to the lab, evading the hungry seals that routinely trailed her in hopes of making a meal of the startled fish.

After hundreds of dives and careful measurements, Cummings discovered that water itself had guided the evolution of piscine beauty. Whichever males happened to have scales that best reflected these wavelengths were more likely to catch the eye of females.

In her studies, Cummings showed that surfperch living in dim or murky waters generally preferred shiny ornaments, while surfperch inhabiting zones of mercurial brightness favored bold colors. Later, Cummings found that Mexican swordtails occupying the upper layers of rivers, where the clear water strongly polarized incoming sunlight, had ornaments that were specialized to reflect polarized light — like a stripe of iridescent blue.

These findings parallel similar studies suggesting that female guppies in Trinidad prefer males with orange patches because they first evolved a taste for nutritious orange tree fruits that occasionally fell into the water. Consider the difference between what we see when we look at a flower and what a bumblebee sees. Like us, insects have color vision. Unlike us, insects can also perceive ultraviolet light.

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Most creatures are oblivious to these ornaments, but to the eyes of many pollinators, they are unmistakable beacons. There is an entire dimension of floral beauty invisible to us, not because we are not exposed to ultraviolet light, but because we do not have the proper biological hardware to perceive it.

Their mating call has two elements: The main part, dubbed the whine, sounds precisely like a miniaturized laser gun; sometimes this is followed by one or more brief barks, known as chucks. A long and complex mating call is risky: It attracts frog-eating bats. Yet there is a high payoff. Ryan has shown that whines followed by chucks are up to five times as appealing to females as whines alone. But why? As it happens, larger males, which produce the deepest and sexiest chucks, are also the most adept at mating, because they are closer in size to females.

Frog sex is a slippery affair, and a diminutive male is more likely to miss his target. Ryan thinks that eons ago, the ancestor of all these species probably evolved an inner ear tuned to roughly 2, hertz for some long-abandoned purpose. Male frogs that happened to burp out a few extra notes after whining were automatically favored by females — not because they were more suitable mates, but simply because they were more noticeable.

But now sensory bias is considered an important part of the evolution of these preferences. He said it could not possibly explain the staggering diversity and idiosyncrasy of sexual ornaments — the fact that every closely related sparrow species has a unique embellishment, for example.

Image A male king bird-of-paradise. In , Prum and his colleagues revealed that a crow-size dinosaur called Anchiornis huxleyi was beautifully adorned: gray body plumage, an auburn mohawk and long white limb feathers with black spangles.

Why dinosaurs originally evolved feathers has long perplexed scientists.

What will your book be?

But what explains the development of broad, flat feathers like those found on Anchiornis? In his book, Prum advocates for an alternative hypothesis that has been gaining support: Large feathers evolved to be beautiful.

The aesthetic possibilities of fuzzy down are limited. Only later did birds co-opt their big, glamorous plumes for flight, which is probably a key reason that some of them survived mass extinction 66 million years ago. Birds transformed what was once mere frippery into some of the most enviable adaptations on the planet, from the ocean-spanning breadth of an albatross to the torpedoed silhouette of a plunging falcon.

Yet they never abandoned their sense of style, using feathers as a medium for peerless pageantry. A feather, then, cannot be labeled the sole product of either natural or sexual selection. A feather, with its reciprocal structure, embodies the confluence of two powerful and equally important evolutionary forces: utility and beauty.

Beauty reveals that evolution is neither an iterative chiseling of living organisms by a domineering landscape nor a frenzied collision of chance events. Rather, evolution is an intricate clockwork of physics, biology and perception in which every moving part influences another in both subtle and profound ways. Its gears are so innumerable and dynamic — so susceptible to serendipity and mishap — that even a single outcome of its ceaseless ticking can confound science for centuries.

On my last day in Austin, while walking through a park, I encountered a common grackle hunting for insects in the grass. His plumage appeared black as charcoal at first, but as he moved, it shimmered with all the colors of an oil slick.

Every now and then, he stopped in place, inflated his chest and made a sound like a rusty swing set. Perhaps dissatisfied with the local fare, or uncomfortable with my presence, he flew off.

In his absence, my attention immediately shifted to something his presence had obscured — a golden columbine bush. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. In addition, there is a tendency to portray women as the Classic beauty type in both types of magazines. As Berger and Shields have noted, there has been a tradition in Western art of displaying the female body.

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This has not been the tradition in Chinese or Malay art the two predominant ethnic groups in Singapore. Historically, when women appear in traditional Chinese paintings they are often clothed in loose robes, and the face and hair rather than the body, become the central focus. In Malay art, because of the influence of Islam, women are always depicted in modest dress and pose. Clothing has traditionally been related to the body. The high proportion of clothing ads in global magazines, coupled with the higher proportion of the Sexy beauty type used with Caucasian women suggests that there may be differences in the way women of differing ethnicities are being constructed in terms of beauty in advertising in Asia.

For the Caucasian model, the body may represent the defining factor in beauty, while for the Chinese or Asian model it may be more a matter of face. One issue that the findings from this research bring into question is whether the preponderance of Caucasian models in advertisements in an Asian country creates unfair expectations in women by holding up an unattainable beauty ideal.

On the other hand, some Singaporean point out that light, porcelain skin has historically been valued in China and Singapore. While stereotypical media portrayals of beautiful women seem to be used in the media all over the world, previous researchers have noted that the images of female 17 beauty that we see in the media are unattainable for all but a very small number of women Greer, ; Gauntlett, Most advertisements that appear in magazines have been extensively retouched to remove even the slightest flaw.

By showing models that are uniformly thin, flawless, and perfectly proportioned, the media may contribute to unhappiness among women about their own bodies and thus, undermine self-confidence and reinforce problems like eating disorders.

One American researcher Richins , studied attitudes and behaviors of college students exposed to advertisements and found that after viewing beautiful models, subjects rated average women as less attractive.

In other words, images of highly attractive individuals caused these viewers to rate the attractiveness of more ordinary women, lower than they would otherwise.

As global media begin to take readers away from the local media in countries like Singapore, it would be advantageous for researchers to question the impact of imported beauty ideals on local audiences. When the predominant models shown in ads in a country like Singapore are of an ethnic group that does not represent local beauty, the advertisers are reifying beauty standards that are unattainable to local audiences.

Other This included African models or models whose ethnicity could not be easily determined. With fair skin and a glamorous and sophisticated look, she usually wears soft, feminine but not heavily accessorized apparel. Sexy The model is posed in a sexually attractive way. She usually wears sexy attire or tight-fitting, revealing clothes. Cute With casual attire, the model has a cute and youthful appearance.

She can also be outdoorsy, in a casual, active manner. Trendy The model usually wears faddish clothes, and displays oversized accessories. Her hair is tousled.

There is a slight sense of chaos to this type. Clothing This category includes all clothing designers and manufacturers. Accessories This category includes sunglasses, scarves, purses, shoes, hand phones, and other accessories.

Do nudes in ads enhance brand recall? Journal of Advertising Research, 18, 47— Bagdikian, B. The media monopoly 5th ed.

Boston: Beacon. Belk, R. Materialism and individual determinism in U. Lutz, Ed.

Advances in Consumer Research pp. Provo, Utah: Association for Consumer Research. Materialism and status appeal in Japanese and U. International Marketing Review, 2 12 , 38— Berger, J. Ways of seeing. London: Penguin.

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Cheng, H. Reflections of cultural values: A content analysis of Chinese magazine advertisements from and International Journal of Advertising, 13, — Cultural values reflected in Chinese and U. Journal of Advertising Research, 36, 27— Holding up half of the sky: A sociocultural comparison of gender role portrayals in Chinese and U. International Journal of Advertising, 16, — Chestnut, R.

The decorative female model: Sexual stimuli and the recognition of advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 6, 11— Cortese, A. Provocateur: Images of women and minorities in advertising.

Englis, B. Beauty before the eyes of beholders: The cultural encoding of beauty types in magazine advertising and music television. Journal of Advertising, 23 2 , 49— Frith, K.

Advertising and societies: Global issues. New York: Peter Lang. Individualism and advertising: A cross cultural comparison. Media Asia, 18, — Gauntlett, D. Media, gender and identity: An introduction. London: Routledge. The consequences of modernity. Cambridge: Polity. Griffin, M. Gender advertising in the U.

Greer, G. The whole woman. London: Doubleday.Belk, R. Boulder, CO: Westview. I absolutely recommend Issada brushes and have introduced many team members and other makeup artists to them. Trends and new products for eye lash extensions, eye brows, makeup and more.

All the while, he never stopped thinking about sexual selection. Yet they never abandoned their sense of style, using feathers as a medium for peerless pageantry.

Frith and Mueller noted that in conservative Asian countries like Malaysia and Indonesia only Caucasian women were used in lingerie advertising, as showing partially undressed local women was not acceptable to local cultural norms.